The initiating step in most innovations is not research, but rather a design (inventions or analytic design).
The term "analytic design" is used to denote a study of new combinations of existing products and components, rearrangements of processes, and designs of new equipment with the existing state of the art.
Stored knowledge about physical, biological and social nature is an essential ingredient in the bulk of current innovations.
Knowledge enters in the innovation process through the knowledge in the heads of people in the innovative organization.
Research is needed only when sources of stored knowledge are inadequate for the task at hand.